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8B THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

 
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CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM IS THE BRAIN AND SPINAL    CORD                                                                              

The cerebrum

  1. is organised into two hemispheres that are responsible for higher order functions and complex skills

  2. These functions include memory, speech, cognitive thought, problem solving, attention and emotions

  3. Information can be passed between the two hemispheres by a bundle of myelinated nerve fibres embedded within the brain

  4. These fibres form the corpus callosum to facilitate interhemispheric communication

 
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Cerebellum

  1. maintaining balance

  2. coordination of movement

  3. muscle control 

Medulla oblongata

  1. regulation of breathing

  2. REGULATION OF heart beat

 

BRAIN IMAGING

MRI

MRI

 

 

1.     It is also used to investigate the structure and function of brain and also to diagnose the diseased or damaged part of brain but it gives better quality images and better resolution picture as compared to CT scan.

2.     Magnetic field and radiowaves are used by MRI scanners to form the cross-section image of the brain.

3.     Example: In the case of a brain tumour (an abnormal mass of cells), MRI scanners will show a lighter colour in the scan because brain tumour cells respond differently to the magnetic fields than healthy cells.

4.     The scanner shows the location and exact size of the tumour.

 

fMRI

  1. These scanners are used to investigate the detailed, high resolution structure of the brain like MRI scanners but they can also be used to show changes in brain activity as they happen.

  2. The primary form of fMRI uses the blood-oxygen-level dependent 

  3. Example: If during fMRI, the patient is asked to move their right hand, then the areas of the brain involved in that function or activity get highlighted in red.

  4. fMRI scanners can also be used to diagnose the diseased areas of brain

  5. e.g.: If an epileptic patient undergoes a fMRI scan before and during a seizure, then the scanner can help to know which part of brain is not doing its function properly and needs treatment

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CT scanner (Computed Tomography)

  1. It is used to investigate the structure and function of brain

  2. and also to diagnose the diseased or damaged part of brain.

  3. X-RAYS ARE USED by the scanner to form cross-section images of the structure.

  4. CT scanner can only be used to find the Function Of Diseased Structure, not the normal one.

  5. Example: If some blood vessels of the brain get damaged due to accident or stroke then  a CT scanner will show a lighter colour in the scan due to different density of the blood as compared to normal tissues.

  6. As a result, the location of damaged blood vessels can be diagnosed and also the functions affected.

 
 

PET (Computed Tomography)

  1. It is used to investigate the structure and function of brain

  2. and also to diagnose the diseased or damaged part of brain.

  3. X-RAYS ARE USED by the scanner to form cross-section images of the structure.

  4. CT scanner can only be used to find the Function Of Diseased Structure, not the normal one.

  5. Example: If some blood vessels of the brain get damaged due to accident or stroke then  a CT scanner will show a lighter colour in the scan due to different density of the blood as compared to normal tissues.

  6. As a result, the location of damaged blood vessels can be diagnosed and also the functions affected.

EXAM PRACTICE AND SAMPLE ANSWERS

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